Every proposition therefore has one of four possible distribution of terms. The simplest operation is conversion where the subject and predicate terms are interchanged. A if and only if B 2: All non-P is S. All S are M.

There Are Many Logics. Introduction to Logic 11th ed. Home Top Menu Quick Links. Categorical syllogism , Set Theory. The simplest operation is conversion where the subject and predicate terms are interchanged.

Some non-P is not S. There Are Many Logics. What is Propositional Logic? Xeio Language Has a Logical Structure. A categorical term is something that will be categorized, such as ‘dog’ and ‘cat’. The capital letters represent classes of objects: On this page students will find Venn Diagrams for all 15 valid standard form categorical syllogisms.

An Introduction 2nd ed.

These can be traditionally placed in the Square of Opposition. Opposites There are several types of opposition used in categorical propositions. This proposition has a truth value — it makes an assertion that could be true or false. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Modern understanding of categorical propositions originating with the midth century work of George Boole requires one to consider if the subject category may be empty.


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Contradictions A and not-A 3: If all members of the term’s class are affected by thinkkng proposition, that class is distributed ; otherwise it is undistributed. Since all beetles are defined not to be mammals, and all mammals are defined not to be beetles, both classes are distributed. All dogs are indeed mammals, but it would be false to say all mammals are dogs.

If so, this is called the hypothetical viewpointin opposition to the existential viewpoint which requires the subject category to have at least one member.

Categorical Propositions

What you learn in propositional logic is the rules for determining the truth values of the following compound claims …. For instance, an I crirical “Some S is P ” is particular since it only refers to some of the members of the subject class.

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Introduction to Logic 11th ed. A categorical proposition is simply a statements about the relationship between categories. A categorical term is said to be distributed if the categorical proposition that contains it says something about all members of that categorical term. This is not the case for the A and O forms. When a statement such as “Some politicians are not corrupt” is said to distribute the “corrupt people” group aeuo “some politicians”, the information seems of little value, since the group “some politicians” is not defined.


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It is undistributed if the categorical proposition that contains it says does not something about all members of that categorical term. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Since not all politicians are defined by this rule, the subject is undistributed. Some S is non-P. There are several operations e.

Categorical Propositions

The whole sentence can be treated as a proposition which is citical true or false. Each of the four canonical forms will be examined in turn regarding its distribution of terms. Some non-P is not non-S. In short, for the subject to be distributed, the statement must be universal e.

The two possible qualities are called affirmative and negative.

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